The hottest sword refers to the approval system. M

2022-08-20
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Jianzhi "approval system" multiple proposals guide the iron and steel industry

Jianzhi "approval system" multiple proposals guide the iron and steel industry

China Construction machinery information

Guide: from the rumors of pig breeding at WISCO to the fact that Masteel has a loss of nearly 4billion in advance. In 2012, the steel industry experienced serious difficulties. Up to now, China's crude steel production capacity is nearly 900 million tons, accounting for about half of the global production capacity. There is overcapacity, serious waste and unbearable resources and environment. In this year's two sessions

from the rumor of WISCO's "pig raising" to the fact that Masteel lost nearly 4billion in advance. In 2012, the steel industry experienced serious difficulties. Up to now, China's crude steel production capacity is nearly 900 million tons, accounting for about half of the global production capacity. There is overcapacity, serious waste and unbearable resources and environment. At this year's "two sessions", the all China Federation of industry and Commerce and the Central Committee of the National Revolutionary Committee of the Chinese Communist Party of China made a number of proposals aimed at the iron and steel industry moving forward with heavy loads

call for the abolition of the administrative "approval system"

the proposal of the all China Federation of industry and Commerce on the abolition of the administrative "approval system" in the steel industry to supervise the quality of steel products and environmental resources according to law believes that one of the reasons for the difficulties in the steel industry is the "administrative approval system" in the steel industry

The proposal points out that the regulation of the steel industry has been comprehensively strengthened in the past 10 years. In 2004, the State Council issued the decision on investment system reform. The iron and steel industry has the characteristics of "affecting environmental resources" and is classified as "approval system" management. In the implementation, it is not limited to the approval of "affecting environmental resources", but expanded to all aspects, and concentrated the approval power to the national development and Reform Commission. In particular, the "iron and steel industry development policy" issued in July 2005 has made comprehensive provisions on the iron and steel industry planning, technical policy, equipment level, enterprise organization structure, investment management, etc. the operation method of wire rod changing the experimental machine has also been limited, and the volume of blast furnace and converter has been uniformly approved by the national development and Reform Commission, marking that the state has comprehensively strengthened administrative management

the proposal believes that the resulting negative effects are very obvious: first, the "approval system" is divorced from market demand, resulting in a serious imbalance between steel supply and demand market and distorted development of the steel industry. At the end of the 11th five year plan, the regulation is a very important technical performance for aircraft interior decoration; The consumption of crude steel is 340 million tons, and the actual consumption in the same period reached 620 million tons, a shortage of 280 million tons, a difference of 82%. Due to the implementation of a highly centralized "approval system" and the strict control of steel projects, there has been a long-term imbalance between supply and demand, a sharp increase in imported steel, and a sharp increase in steel prices year after year. Driven by the huge market, a large amount of social capital is invested in the steel industry. Roughly speaking, the production capacity that accounts for more than half of the national steel consumption is not "approved" but consumed by the market

second, the approval system has led to the "large-scale" of technical equipment, resulting in serious overcapacity of plates. The "iron and steel industry development policy" stipulates that the technical equipment of existing enterprises and new enterprises must be large-scale according to the equipment policy, and as an important condition for the approval of iron and steel projects and market access. According to statistics, before the implementation of the "iron and steel industry development policy" in 2004, China had a total of 19 sets of large coil mills, with a production capacity of 56.2 million tons, and the supply and demand were basically balanced. In the seven years from 2005 to 201, 67 new coil mills were built, with a capacity of 220 million tons, far exceeding the market demand. In 2011, the plate output produced by the coil mill was 130 million tons, and the capacity utilization rate was only 59%. There is an abnormal phenomenon that the price of plate is lower than that of rebar in the market

third, the policy orientation focuses on scale and ignores quality, which leads to the virtual increase of steel production capacity. For a long time, the state pays attention to output in industrial policy and prefers large-scale enterprises. Small and medium-sized enterprises are often discriminated against and may be administratively forced to shut down at any time, objectively prompting enterprises to pursue output excessively and sacrifice quality. Take converter steelmaking as an example. For enterprises that pay attention to quality, the oxygen blowing time of converter is about 15 minutes. Avoid using solid tools for liquidation, while most enterprises shorten the time to 12-13 minutes, with high output but poor quality. If the quality is generally improved, based on the national crude steel production capacity of 970 million tons, the virtual increased production capacity of 200 million tons can be compressed, which can not only provide high-quality steel for the society, but also effectively alleviate overcapacity

to this end, the all China Federation of industry and Commerce suggested: first, cancel the current "approval system" for project and equipment levels, and implement legal supervision. As the development of iron and steel involves land, environment, energy and other conditions, it is suggested that the local government should first review it in combination with the national master plan, and then the relevant departments should supervise it according to law. The national development and Reform Commission exercises total control over the production capacity of major steel producing provinces, and exercises process or post event control over resources, environment and total volume. For matters that belong to the enterprise's own decision-making, such as production scale, technical equipment, etc., it is also the right of the enterprise to give play to the role of the market in allocating resources

second, formulate standards and specifications to improve steel quality. Encourage and support steel enterprises to strengthen technological transformation, eliminate backward production capacity and improve product quality. Especially for the steel quality that consumers cannot identify, such as steel for housing construction, the state should make detailed and strict requirements from the aspects of production standards, process management, quality specifications, etc

it is suggested to increase statistical investment

a proposal of the all China Federation of industry and Commerce on improving statistical methods and statistical quality in the iron and steel industry has also attracted attention. The proposal points out that at present, the information statistics of the iron and steel industry are not comprehensive and complete, and it is difficult to scientifically and systematically reflect the actual situation of the development of the iron and steel industry, which has a certain negative effect on the national macro-control. In addition, due to the incomplete statistical information, enterprises are unclear about the development of the industry, the analysis of existing problems is unclear, and even lead to wrong conclusions, which seriously affects the healthy development of iron and steel enterprises

the main problems existing in the Steel Statistics industry are as follows: first, the scope of statistics is narrow, lagging behind the development of the steel industry. In the past 10 years, small and medium-sized steel enterprises have made great progress, with more than 400 enterprises of considerable scale. The current statistical scope of iron and steel is only about 120 enterprises. In this part of enterprises, statistical data is only a part of all information, and the data coverage is far from enough. Second, the statistical information is far from reflecting the situation of the steel industry. The current statistical items are not comprehensive, and many information that needs to be mastered and understood is not included

therefore, the all China Federation of industry and Commerce suggests: improve and perfect the statistical management system of iron and steel enterprises and give full play to the functions of industry organizations. Clarify the centralized management unit of statistics of small and medium-sized iron and steel enterprises, and solve the problem of the absence of statistical functions. It is suggested to form a statistical mechanism for small and medium-sized iron and steel enterprises under the unified leadership of the National Bureau of statistics, organized and supervised by the Ministry of industry and information technology, which is under the specific responsibility of national industry organizations, and endow national iron and steel industry organizations with the responsibilities of statistical organization, data review and industry analysis of small and medium-sized iron and steel enterprises

appropriately increase the statistical investment in the steel industry. The state should provide certain financial subsidies and appropriate investment from industry organizations to jointly solve the problem of statistical costs. Specifically, it can be included in the Department's financial budget by the National Bureau of statistics, and specifically managed by the Ministry of industry and information technology to ensure the normal progress of statistical work with sufficient funds

solve overcapacity with market mechanism

the proposal of the Central Committee of the Revolutionary Committee of the people's Republic of China on using market mechanism to solve the problem of overcapacity in steel industry points out the way to break the situation for the steel industry

although there are reasons for macroeconomic cycle fluctuations, there are also deep-seated reasons for overcapacity in the steel industry: first, local government intervention leads to the lack of fair and transparent standards for the survival of the fittest. Although the government tries to establish an administrative system of survival of the fittest through the approval of investment projects and the implementation of compulsory industry access, due to the non marketization of the policy, it is vulnerable to the impact of implementation, coupled with the game between local governments and the central government, the actual effect is not good. Second, the social security system is not perfect - eccoh halogen-free formula: it has the characteristics of high flame retardancy, low toxicity and low smoke density; This leads to the high exit cost of enterprises. In the industry downturn, enterprises gradually overcome the problem of overcapacity through mergers and acquisitions, technological upgrading and other ways, which is a common way to solve the problem of overcapacity in mature market economies. However, due to the huge cost of employee resettlement caused by the withdrawal of enterprises, both the merger and reorganization party and the local government can't bear it. Therefore, the local government often continues to subsidize enterprises, or introduces other state-owned enterprises, so that enterprises can barely maintain it in a non market way

based on the above analysis, the proposal believes that the solution to the problem of iron and steel overcapacity should be to establish a fair and transparent competition mechanism, activate competition and realize industrial upgrading through market-oriented means of survival of the fittest

first, reduce government intervention and establish a fair and transparent competitive environment. The second is to establish a compensation and relief mechanism for the exit of excess industries to reduce the exit cost of enterprises. For industries with overcapacity, the central government can establish non-performing asset management companies or similar special funds to share the social security costs in the process of enterprise exit. For example, non-performing asset management companies can first undertake the equity of poorly managed enterprises, and use the state subsidy funds and asset contribution income to solve social problems such as employee resettlement

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